Extracting petrol and diesel from crude oil, which comes from deep underground, is a huge process, which includes more money and time in the process of converting into gasoline. Also, the higher amount of emissions have led the automotive industry to search for alternative fuels.

Okay! Well, let’s look into Alternative fuels, which are the future of the industry.

Ethanol fuel:

Ethanol fuel is made from corn and other plant materials for gasoline engines. It is used as motor fuel and mainly as biofuel. Ethanol fuel- It is atmospherically carbon-neutral. Gasoline used in the U.S contains Ethanol generally, the E10 which has 10% of ethanol and 90% of Gasoline. Fiat-147, the first production car which is entirely run on ethanol, was introduced in 1978 in Brazil. And also in 2019, TVS launched Apache RTR 200 Fi E100 which is Indian’s first ethanol-based Motorcycle. TVS has stated that it takes 20% of Petrol and 80% of ethanol. 


  • It is the least expensive energy source and has the potential to produce ethanol in almost every country and is easily accessible. 
  • Ecologically effective compared to other fuel sources.
  • Employment-yeah you read it right. When the usage of ethanol fuel increases, it creates employment opportunities in the process of converting to fuel which also helps farmers in the agriculture sectors.
  • It is a Renewable source of energy and Minimises the dependency on fossil fuels.


  • It requires a large land area as ethanol is produced from corn and other plant materials like sugar cane and other grains which should be produced on a large scale.
  • Starting a car in cold conditions will be difficult as ethanol is hard to vaporize.
  • At the time of the demand for corn crops, the food prices will cross our expectations.
  • It takes a lot of heat expenditure and time in the process of distilling the ferment of corn and other crops.

Hydrogen Fuel:

Hydrogen fuel is an alternative fuel. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen, producing water and electricity. Hydrogen fuel cars use a device called a fuel cell. They place this in the car along with others such as hydrogen tanks, power control unit, battery, motor, stack boost, and converter.

In the fuel cell, there is an anode and cathode. When hydrogen from the tank enters the anode, a catalyst splits the molecules into electrons and protons while travelling towards the cathode. The protons move to the cathode and mix with oxygen to create water in a chemical reaction, the electrons at the anode generate electricity that is used to power the motors that drive the wheels. 


  • We can extract it from natural gas and also from other chemicals.
  • It is an abundant element that can be found easily and readily available.
  • It has a high-density source of energy efficiency, including green energy solutions.
  • It is a carbon-free fuel and has zero emissions.
  • Fast charging and there will be no smoke pollution and noise pollution.
  • Independence. No need to depend on other countries for fuels and reduce transportation costs.
  • As technology advances, we can also use it in smaller applications.


  • Extraction of hydrogen is hard as it takes a lot of time to separate from others.
  • Usage of platinum and iridium required for catalysts in fuel cells that cost more money
  • Investment.
  • It is hard to store.
  • Highly flammable.


Electricity is produced from different energy sources including natural gas, wind energy, solar energy and hence stored in batteries. All-electric vehicles need a charge to drive. With the help of an induction motor, an invertor at the back part of the car converts the DC (Direct current) electricity from the batteries into an alternating current (AC) and gives power to the engine. They have Lithium-ion batteries that sit under the flooring. It has a higher power density that is ideal for powering a vehicle.


  • Less maintenance cost. 
  • Good for the environment.
  • Fast and can charge at home, like our handy gadgets.
  • They are much quieter than a normal vehicle.
  • Safe to drive and also comfortable.
  • It requires no gas
  • Low noise pollution and Low smoke Pollution.


  • You can’t travel a long distance.
  • Initially, the buying cost is expensive.
  • The cost of the electricity bill will be more.
  • Battery replacement for 3-7 years or more.
  • It may not be suitable for the places where the shortage of power occurs.
  • It is not 100% emission-free; they cause little pollution indirectly.


CNG-Compressed Natural Gas is Green gas that is comprised of methane. It is used as fuel in buses and trucks and now it is used as fuel for cars. It is a substitution of fossil fuel. 


  • Eco-friendly fuel than gasoline and are safe.
  • It is cheaper than traditional fuels-Petrol and diesel.
  • CNG makes the engine clean and clearer and also reduces harmful emissions.
  • Vehicles running on CNG compared to other fuels had low operational costs.
  • It has a High Auto-ignition temperature and has fewer chances of flammability as CNG contraction in the air is below 10-15%.


  • Require more storage space because it mostly stores in cylinders and hence requires more space to place it.
  • Limited CNG gas stations.
  • CNG gas kits cost more.


Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is produced from vegetable oils, animal oil and fat, waste cooking oils. It is similar to conventional fuels. The process of converting to Biodiesel is called transesterification. There are three ways to get Biodiesel

  1. Base catalyzed Transesterification of the oil.
  2. Direct acid catalyzed Transesterification of the oil.
  3. Conversion of oils to its fatty acids and then to biodiesel.


  • Produced from renewable sources.
  • Biodiesel is pure and has less damage compared to diesel and petroleum.
  • Fossil fuels release greenhouse gases when it is burnt whereas biodiesel releases fewer greenhouse gases.
  • Biodiesel is nontoxic and produces fewer pollutants compared to others and improved air quality.
  • The better fuel economy, you can go to the gas station in less time compared to the others.
  • Best economic impact and many unemployed people get more jobs while producing Bio-diesels.
  • Growth in the agriculture sector.


  • Using biodiesel in cold temperatures is not advisable and is unsuitable and clogged in the engine.
  • When engine efficiency increases, it can damage the rubber house for some engines.
  • There will be a variation in the quality of biodiesel because all vegetables can not give the same amount of oil in extracting and conversion of fuel using chemical processes.
  • An increase in the use of fertilizer leads to soil erosion and land pollution.
  • Biodiesel is expensive compared to petroleum.
  • The biodiesel is produced from animal and vegetable fat and hence gets more demand and leads to food crises in some countries. 

These are some alternative fuels that are being considered in the automotive industry to reduce pollution, for the environment friendly and dependency of other countries where the conventional fuels are produced. 

Also , read : 9 Electric Cars That Might Launch In India In 2021